The form York was first recorded in the 13th century.
Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 80 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary.
The last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England.
In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England, the people of York rebelled.
Old Irish ibar "yew-tree", Welsh efwr "alder buckthorn", Breton evor "alder buckthorn") and suffix *-āko(n) "place" (cf.
Welsh -og) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf.
During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York the privileges of a colonia or city.